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Options & Futures Markets Research Paper Starter

We face two key problems in valuing declining and distressed companies. Valuing financial service firms version 3. Should we reward firms that have simpler and more open financial statements and punish firms that have complex and difficult-to-understand financial statements? If the investor is fearful of bear markets when prices are decreasing and often doing so rapidly, it is likely that the investor will choose to liquidate the falling investments at a loss. Historical volatility can be compared with implied volatility to determine if a stock's options are over- or undervalued. That is the question..

Acc Week 5 Stock Options Paper ACC Week 5 Stock Options Paper Purchase here Product Description ACC Week 5 Stock Options Paper In recent months there have been many news stories in the press about executive compensation with stock options.

Options & Futures Markets

The option is purchased at a specific expiration date and strike price. If the price of that stock goes up, the buyer has some choices to make. The buyer can exercise their right to buy shares of the stock represented by the option. They can then sell the stock they purchased at the higher price since it has gone up in the market. So the goal of purchasing call options is that the stock price will rise higher than the strike price of your option.

Sell options or put options work in a similar way but in a different market direction. You may purchase a put option on a stock that you expect to fall in price. If the price of the stock falls below your strike price before the option expiration date, you can exercise your right to sell shares at a higher price, thus making a profit. Options offer no advantage to investors if the underlying investment, stock for example, is at the same price as the strike price because the investor can neither buy nor sell to make a profit.

When an investor closes their option position, they are selling their options back to the open market in order to make a profit Godin, Ultimately, Godin suggests that the ability to enjoy investing in options or any risky investment vehicle is directly related to how well the investor can tolerate risk and rapid changes in the market.

If the investor is fearful of bear markets when prices are decreasing and often doing so rapidly, it is likely that the investor will choose to liquidate the falling investments at a loss. Similarly, Jones described a long-running bull market where prices are rising.

Just as a bear market might instill fear in the investor, a bull market might instill false confidence. Knowing your own ability to tolerate risk and need to avert risk can be valuable in determining the appropriate investment strategy.

Investments in stock are usually for the long term but risk averse and small investors often don't have the wherewithal or the ability to tolerate periods of downturn. The basic question investors must ask themselves about options is how confident are they that a specific situation will occur in the future.

Kansas notes that options are less risky than the actual stocks themselves because the most an individual might lose in a day of market activity is the initial investment made. However, Kansas also describes options investing as "complex and risky" requiring the investor to have education and knowledge of risk and somewhat intricate mathematical abilities.

Kansas recommends options only for seasoned investors and suggests part time investors stay on the sidelines. Volatile periods are also times to avoid for novice investors. Options are generally purchased with expiration dates of no more than a year away and often expire monthly. Other types of options include long term options, index options and futures options.

Groz explains that options contracts require a relationship between the buyer and the seller called a "zero-sum game" meaning that one person wins and the other person loses. If you profit, the other player experiences losses. However, even if a player experiences a loss, the transaction may provide value to the player by reducing risk, improving the relationship between assets and liabilities, creating a position in the market or other benefits.

Groz suggests five strategies called "combination strategies" that investors can use for options:. In this paper, we show that the difference between the implied volatilities of call and put options on individual equities has strong predictive power for aggregate stock market returns. This predictability is inconsistent with a rational risk premia or liquidity-based explanation. It is, however, consistent with the implied volatility spread capturing private information, based on its ability to forecast future cash flow growth and discount rate shocks.

We establish bounds on Black-Scholes implied volatility that improve on the uniform bounds previously derived by Tehranchi. Our upper bound is uniform, while the lower bound holds for most options likely to be encountered in practical applications. We further demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our new bounds by showing how the efficiency of the bisection algorithm is improved for a snapshot of SPX options quotes.

We present a new framework to investigate the profitability of trading the volatility spread, the upward bias on implied volatility as an estimator of future realized volatility. The scheme incorporates the first four option-implied moments in a growth-optimal payoff that is statically replicated using a portfolio of options. Developing a template for deciding which risks to exploit is key to success. In this paper, we examine the potential competitive advantages that a firm can exploit to advantage.

Strategic Risk Taking Download paper. Intangibles are a large and growing part of many company's assets. Starting with the presumption that current accounting standards do not do a good job of assessing their value, we look at whether intangible assets can be reasonably valued, and if so, the best ways of accomplishing this task. We categorize intangible assets into three groups - independent, cash generating intangibles like trademarks and franchises that can be valued with conventional DCF models, composite intangibles that affect the sales of many products and not just cash flows such as brand name that are more difficult to isolate and value and intangibles with the potential to generate cash flows in the future that are best valued using option pricing models.

The Value of Intangibles Download paper brandnamevalue. Spreadsheet for valuing brand name. Investors prefer more liquid assets to otherwise similar illiquid assets, but how much at they willing to pay for liquidity? In this paper, we beign by examining our definition fo liqhidity and the empirical evideence on how much markets value liquidity. We consider the empirical evidence on the consequences of illiquidity for equity, fixed income and private equity markets and how best to inrorporate illiquidity into estimated value.

Finally, we consider practical ways of estimating the illiquidity premium for illiquid companies and ssets. The Value Of Liquidity Download paper liqdisc.

Spreadsheet to value liquidity. Most businesses carry cash on their balance sheets, though the motives for holding cash vary widely across firms. Some of the cash is held to cover operating needs transactions , some to cover contingencies precautionary motive and some reflects managerial incentives. We consider how best to value cash in both discounted cash flow and relative valuations, and consider the net debt and gross debt approaches in valuation.

We also examine how to incorporate the value of cross holdings, both majority and minority, into business valuations. Resolving the differences between gross and net debt approaches. How much is control worth? The answer to that question affects how much the control premium should be in acquisitions, how much of a premium voting shares should trade at and the discount that should be applied to minority stakes in private companies.

This paper looks at how best to measure the value of control and how this can be useful in answering a variety of valuation questions. The Value of Control Download paper controlvalue. Spreadsheet to value control. Companies use employee stock options ESOPs and restricted stock issues to compensate employees. In this paper, we examine why their usage has increased over the last two decades and how best to deal with the option overhang in valuation. We also look at ways of incorporating future option grants into value per share today.

Often promised, seldom delivered is the best description for synergy, the most widely used rationale in corporate mergers. In this paper, we explore how synergy is created and how to value it. We also examine why companies miscalculate so often when it comes to synergy.

The Value of Synergy Download paper synergyvaluation. Spreadsheet to value synergy. Every valuation analyst has faced one or more of these questions in real world valuations and has had to come up with an answer. These are my very opinionated and not necessarily correct answers to the 25 top questions that we face in DCF valuation. Take it for a spin! We take far too narrow a view of risk in finance. When we talk about risk management, we often only talk about risk hedging and when we estimate value, the discount rate is the only place where we reflect risk.

In reality, risk is both a threat and an opportunity and successful firms not only protect themselves against some types of risk but actively exploit other types of risk to establish competitive advantages. In this paper, we present a way of considering risk management in this broader sense and consider ways in which we can bring risk into the other components of value. We also consider what types of firms are most likely to benefit from risk hedging and from risk management.

Download paper pdf Effects of risk on DCF value spreadsheet Risk hedging as a put option spreadsheet. It is common practice in valuation to assume that companies within an emerging market are all equally exposed to country risk and that companies that are incorporated and trade in developed markets like the United States are immune from it. This is clearly at odds with common sense, since companies within an emerging market can be exposed to different degrees to country risk and multinationals like Coca Cola and Nestle can be exposed to significant emerging market risk.

In this paper, we propose a measure of company exposure to country risk called lambda and suggest ways in which we can estimate lambda. In January , President Bush proposed that dividends be tax exempt to investors. While the ultimate shape of the tax reform is not clear, changing the tax rate on dividends can have significant effects on both equity values and on the corporate finance decisions - investment, capital structure and dividend policy- of companies.

Dow nload paper pdf divtaxpremium. Information Transparency and Value: It is clear that some firms are more forthcoming about their financial affairs than other firms, and that the financial statements of some firms are designed to obscure rather than reveal information about the firms. No matter how strict accounting standards are, firms will continue to use their discretionary power to spin and manipulate the news that they convey to financial markets. The questions we face in valuation are significant ones.

Should we reward firms that have simpler and more open financial statements and punish firms that have complex and difficult-to-understand financial statements? If so, which input in valuation should be the one that we adjust? Download paper pdf Download the complexity scoresheet.

In most valuations, we ignore distress entirely in valuation and make implicit assumptions about the consequences of a firm being unable to meet its financial obligations and these assumptions often are unrealistic.

Even those valuations that purport to consider the effect of distress do so incompletely. In this paper, we begin by considering how distress can be explicitly considered in both discounted cashflow and relative valuation models. Download paper pdf Download Global Crossing valuation distress. Valuing a firm is difficult when it has negative earnings, a limited history or few comparables.

When all three of these components come together, as is the case with many young start-up firms Did someone say internet firms? In this paper, we make an argument that these firms can be valued, albeit with noise, and use Amazon.

Download paper pdf Download Amazon valuation: Are there options embedded in investment decisions? There are also options in financing and valuation. The real question is whether these options have value, and how much they are worth. In this paper, I examine the whole range of real option applications, from the options to expand, delay and abandon in investment options to the option to liquidate in the equity of the firm.

The fundamentals that determine value for private firms as the same as those that determine publicly traded companies, but there are three critical issues. The first relates to the scarcity of information about private firms.

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Unfortunately, in the typical use case, put options are quite ineffective at reducing drawdowns versus the simple alternative of statically reducing exposure to the underlying asset. This paper investigates drawdown characteristics of protected portfolios via simulation and a study of the CBOE S&P 5% Put Protection Index. Return on Stock Options. Chris purchased a call option on a stock for $ The option gives him the right to purchase the stock at $30 per share until May 1st. Get the latest stock option news, options screens, general reports and volatility reports in our stock research center. Powered by Investor's Business Daily.